Our country India i.e Bharat suffering from the stabbing of Communal Politics since India got Independence. It is to be noted, before Independence when our country India was British India, all citizens are suffering from one issue i.e Slavery under Britishers. Then freedom of struggle started by every Indian whether they belong to any religion, caste, colour, creed or gender, everyone jumped into the struggle for freedom. After the long battle with Britishers, we finally got freedom from Britishers. A day of freedom was celebrated and the India as a sovereign announce by our Hon’ble Prime Minister of India ‘Mr. Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru.’ After independence, every citizen had their dreams of one nation, humanity and previliges. But suddenly, a demand of partition was become successful and it was decided by the Lord Mountbatten to make a new country for Indian Muslims i.e Pakistan. When partition held in our country then it was the time of sorrow when most of the Muslims were going to Pakistan and Hindus were coming towards India. But in between whether in India or Pakistan, some elements who entered in the scene they started massacre in India and Pakistan both. In India, violent elements started massacre to Muslims and in Pakistan violent elements started massacre to Hindus. The question is where did they come from? Who allowed them to do such inhumane act? Are they permitted to do such heinous act? Or did they get punishments for such a conduct? These are the questions which needs to be answered after doing analysis.
So these are the instances which arise question in our minds that how can such a situation arise when already we have efficient police administration and military power on the both of the hands in our country. India defeated Pakistan Army with Kabul Afghani militant tribes who entered into the region of Kashmir when there was the rule of ‘Maharaja Hari Singh’. So from where did these elements arise and enter in the scenes?
After partition, a concept of communal politics introduced by some intellectuals only to play communal politics. It is saddened to observe other instances also. In this Article, we will discuss various issues regarding Communal Politics played by politicians after partition also. The purpose of this article only to make aware every citizen of India to keep new perception for communal politics and its role in the society. This is the introductory part to make understand the communal politics and the purpose to publish the article regarding communal politics.
Divide and Rule:-
During the period of Mughal rule, when Muslim Rule was in power the Mughal rule remained peaceful with Hindu Kings. Even Mighty Akbar who was the most powerful Emperor, he extended his empire throughout the country and he got married with the Hindu Princess Jodha Bai to make a peaceful relations with Hindu Kings. According to Mighty Akbar, the empire cannot be established and maintained without the cooperation of Hindu Kings. So, King Akbar gave utmost importance to the value of the peaceful relationships with other Hindu Kings. The revolt also took place during the time of King Akbar and one warrior named as ‘Maharana Pratap’ fought a battle against Emperor ‘Akbar’ in which he defeated by Mughal Empire. So, it cannot be denied that the empire was established with the toleration of Hindu Kings but there were revolts took place by many warriors against the Mughal Empire. Overall, we can say that the relationships between Hindu and Muslims were not strained due to good conduct of Kings from both the sides. And even there was no democratic setup but in an autocratic function, they were maintained good relations between them. Akbar did many attempts to create a peaceful atmosphere and to make a connection between all religions. One most famous attempt by King Akbar was the creation of own religion Din-i Ilahi “the religion of God,” was a system of religious beliefs introduced by the Mughal emperor Akbar in 1582 CE. His idea was to combine Islam and Hinduism into one faith, but also to add aspects of Christianity, Zoroastrianism and Jainism. Akbar took a deep personal interest in religious matters. So without the bad intention, Mughal tried to do efforts to maintain cordial and peaceful relationships between Hindus and Muslims specially. But the last Mughal Emperor ‘Aurangzeb’ had hatred for Hindu and Buddhist religion and he wanted to do forceful conversion of Hindu and Budhist people into musalman. He burnt many Hindu and Buddhist Temples and even he killed many hindus who denied religious conversion to Islam. The most great structure Emperor Aurengzeb burnt was ‘Nalanda Vishvavidyalya’ which was the university existed at that time of Medieval India, famous for Commerce and economics. Aurengzeb vanished all the great structures important for its features only to dominate Islam all over India. This attempt created the feeling of hatred for Hindus against muslims and the people were divided on the basis of religion. And the war started between Hindus and Muslims due to which many Hindu kings started revolt against Mughal rule and denied the supremacy of Mughal Empire. Many kings famous for revolt against Mughal Empire was Chattrapati Shivaji, Maharaja Ranjit Singh and other kings. This created divisions in the Mughal Empire and the Empire started to become weak.
Due to the divisions in the empire, the most important thing we can observe that without the consideration of other religion, one religion cannot rule all over the country with its dominance. And the third party took the advantage of the prevailing situation and conquered our country with their cunning policies and plans.
Conquest of British Rule:-
Before the advent of British Rule, India had its flourishing trade and culture all over the world and had its dominance. Then the Portugese were the first to come to India to lead Enterprises. Vasco da Gama, on the undertook a voyage through the Cape and reached by its ruler Zamorin. In 1502, Vasco da Gama came to India for second time and set up factories at Cochin and Kaunanur. Portugese Government appointed Francisco de Almeida to look after their interests. Almeida built a powerful navy and destroyed the fleet of Zamorin in 1505 and the allies of Zamorin in 1509 and safeguarded the Portuguese settlements. Then many Portugese Successors came and lead the enterprises but the Portuguese power declined due to inefficient successors. The English who were superior to the Portuguese in several respects succeeded in establishing their by defeating them. Then Dutch came into India and first captured Amboyna in 1605, Batavia in 1609 and Malacca in 1641. In 1658, they established their power in Ceylon and Indonesia. But in the beginning, the Dutch and the English were friendly. They conquered to put an end to the Portuguese trade in the East.
And the Dutch established their first factory in Masulipatnam. In 1629, they occupied Nagapatnam on the Madras Coast. Due to the expansion of trade of Dutch in India, the relations between Dutch and English were strained and the new competition arise between French and Dutch. The Dutch had to struggle with French and English. By the middle of the 18th century, the Dutch power destroyed by the British.
Then French came into the power and expanded their trade in Surat and trade competition started between British and French but in 3rd Carnatic war, French finally defeated by British. Then British were slow in establishing their settlements in India. They took advantage of the division in the Mughal Empire and started trade by granting permissions from Mughal Emperor in 1717 to trade in three provinces. The First company as power established their trade in India was the ‘East India Company.’ After starting trade in India, many succeeding Governor Generals arose and came into power were Warren Hastings, Cornwallis, Lord Arthur Wellesley, lord Marques Hastings, Lord Willam Bentick and Lord Dalhousie. They established their power by taking advantage of divisions in the society and they befooled Hindu and Muslims kings by giving them lesser trade profits and and when they established full control over the land then they attacked the army of kings and conquered. Or they provoke one king against his enemy king by taking advantage of their rivalry just because our kings had lack of unity whether due to their religious differences or jealousy against each other. So they used two tactics against us and become successful because of our lack of unity and integrity i.e Akhandta. We will discuss in detail further.